These are some of the Mesolithic and Neolithic flint tools that I make for museum displays, archaeologists or private collectors. I try to make certain tools on request, but this depends on my flint stock and the difficulty of the tool. Many of the tools are made from flint blocks extracted from different chalk and gravel quarries in the Suffolk region. Most of these tools can be found in Britain, however there are some cultures/ types of tool that may never have been in use in Britain - these tools will be labelled as "non-British".

Mesolithic Spear and Harpoon:

Evidence of spears has been found from the Lower palaeolithic however these earliest spears were only fire-hardened wooden shafts that had been sharpened at one end. The stone tipped spear appeared later in the Palaeolithic, the first spearheads were no flakes with minimal retouch work. The spear in the picture (left) an an example of a later spear that has a bifacially worked tip. It has been attached to the wooden shaft in a slot which has been filled with pine resin glue mixed with beeswax, then bound tightly with strong plant fibre. Spears such as this would have appeared throughout the Stone Age after bifacially worked spearheads came into use, they were likely to be a status symbol as much as a functioning hunting tool.

Composite harpoons leave little in the archaeological record as the parts that may only remain are the cow bone barbs and point which, due their size; rarely survive anyway. Harpoons such as this were probably in use as early as the upper Palaeolithic but became more common in the Mesolithic, a period strongly associated with fishing and the equipment used as much has been recovered, especially in Denmark. Like the flint spear the primary point is inserted in the shaft with resin, the barbs are attached to the sides after the barbs are bound by herring-bone style stitching with soaked tree bark to the wooden parts of the barb. The barb component is then bound and glued to the main shaft with pine resin glue. The glue is very water proof so acts well as an adhesive for fishing equipment.


Neolithic Axe heads:

Flint axes are often seen as the iconic tool of Neolithic archaeology as they are so characteristic and easily recognised. Hafted axes appeared in the Mesolithic and were probably used for small-scale tree clearance to create clearings for hunting or to bring down trees for use in construction. These types of axes are Neolithic and could have been polished to create a smoother cutting edge and longer lasting tool. As agriculture was being adopted in Britain, large areas of trees and woodland needed to be cleared for fields and livestock.

These tools are relatively easy to knap, but this depends on the required size of the axe, the axe in the middle is exceptionally large and only appear very rarely in the archaeological record. This is because they are too large for functional use and were possibly trading 'currency' or the flintknapper who made them simply showing off! Finding flaked axes from the Neolithic is rare as they are almost always polished however the process of fully polishing can take up to 150 hours for a medium sized axe.

Neolithic Utility knife:

This type of knife is fairly uncommon in the archaeological record as they difficult to make and excessive for their purpose. However the few that have been found clearly show that their was once an experienced knapper in the area or that the owner of the knife was of some status.

Knives such as this are easy to carry in a pouch or bag so would have been useful for many different tasks, the idea of utility knife appears throughout history as this knife is one of many parts in it's development.

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